A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.
In common usage the words pipe and tube are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards. While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is often made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term “tube” is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e., square or rectangular tubing. In general, “pipe” is the more common term in most of the world, whereas “tube” is more widely used in the United States.
Here are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture. Centrifugal casting of hot alloyed metal is one of the most prominent process. Ductile iron pipes are generally manufactured in such a fashion. Seamless (SMLS) pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a piercing rod to create the hollow shell. As the manufacturing process does not include any welding, seamless pipes are perceived to be stronger and more reliable. Historically seamless pipe was regarded as withstanding pressure better than other types, and was often more easily available than welded pipe.
Advances since the 1970s in materials, process control and non-destructive testing allow correctly specified welded pipe to replace seamless in many applications. Welded (also Electric Resistance Welded (“ERW”), and Electric Fusion Welded (“EFW”)) pipe is formed by rolling plate and welding the seam. The weld flash can be removed from the outside or inside surfaces using a scarfing blade. The weld zone can also be heat treated to make the seam less visible. Welded pipe often has tighter dimensional tolerances than seamless, and can be cheaper if manufactured in the same quantities.
ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN is a reputable source for all your industrial needs for pipes in different size and material.
A flange (FLG) is a bolted connection where two pieces of pipe, equipment, fittings or valves can be connected together. They come in different styles, pressure ratings and sizes to meet the design requirements. The two most commonly used flange standards are ANSI/ASME B16.5 and BS 1560. The third is API Spec 6A which is for flanges used on wellhead and Christmas tree equipment.
There are different types of flanges available for use. Depending on the service the line is being used for will dictate the flange material to be used. Referencing the proper specification will provide this information. This is why it is always important to have up to date P&ID’s to help with the identification.
Flanges of different standards are not normally joined together. But if need be, seek engineering advise to ensure that the flanges are compatible.
There are six basic types of flanges:
Blind Flange (BF) – Lap Joint Flange (LJF) – Slip-on Flange (SOF) – Socket Weld Flange (SWF) – Threaded Flange (THDF) – Weld Neck Flange (WNF)
All these flanges come normally with a raised flange face (unless otherwise specified flat flange face) except the lap joint flange which has a flat flange face.
There are also a number of special flanges:
ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN is a reputable source for all your industrial needs for flanges in different size and material.
A pipe fitting is defined as a part used in a piping system, for changing direction, branching or for change of pipe diameter, and which is mechanically joined to the system. There are many different types of fittings and they are the same in all sizes and schedules as the pipe.
Fittings are divided into three groups:
Types of Fittings
With considering wide variety of types and materials of fittings, ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN is able to offer you all types of fitting needed, as a package.
A butterfly valve (BTFLV) is a quarter turn valve (90° or less) with a circular disk as its closing element. The standard design has the valve stem running through the disk, giving a symmetrical appearance. Other designs offset the stem. Advantages include less wear and tear on the disk and seats, and tighter shut-off capabilities. When space is limited, sometimes larger valves may use a hand wheel with a gear arrangement. Butterfly valves are rather easy to maintain. These valves are used for gases, liquids, slurries, powders, and vacuum.
There are two butterfly valve categories:
Category A: Manufacturer’s rated cold working pressure (CWP) butterfly valves, usually with a concentric disc and seat configuration. Sizes covered are NPS 2 to NPS 48 for valves having ASME Class 125 or Class 150 flange bolting patterns.
Category B: Pressure-temperature rated butterfly valves that have an offset seat and either an eccentric or a concentric disc configuration. These valves may have a seat rating less than the body rating. Sizes covered are NPS 3 to NPS 24 for Classes 150, 300, and 600.
High Performance Butterfly Valves (HPBV) must meet certain criteria. For a butterfly valve to be determined as high performance it must:
Provide bubble tight shutoff for the entire range of its rated ANSI differential pressure across the valve.
Be bidirectional in nature
Typically, HPBV will be of a double or triple offset design.
When using valves in a service that may provide fuel to a fire, it is important to ensure that they are “fire tight.” Typically the seat in a soft seated fire tight valve contains a metal strip that will provide additional sealing should the seat be burnt or melted away. Fire tight valves can be found on fuel gas applications, VRU systems and in other flammable systems.
Ask ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN for a quick quote for all different kind of butterfly valves that you need and strong relation with major manufactures, able it to cover all inquiries for different material, size and method of operation.
Check valves (CV) are designed to allow the fluid/vapor to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow. There are four basic types: diaphragm check, lift check, swing check, and tilting-disk check. Check valves are also called non-return valves and are usually self-acting.
Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave.
Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem. The bodies (external shells) of most check valves are made of plastic or metal.
An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure.
ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN will offer you all types of check valves according to your specific needs.
The gate valve (GTV) is one of the most frequently used valve in piping systems and is classified as either “rising-stem” or “nonrising-stem” valves. The rising-stem gate valve has the stem attached to the gate, both gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve handwheel or actuator turns the stem. In the nonrising-stem gate valves the stem is threaded into the wedge, rising and lowering the wedge.
It is a multi turn valve which should be used for on and off service. If the valve is partially open as an attempt to throttle or control flow, turbulence from the stream could cause the wedge to vibrate and create a chattering noise. When fully opened, the gate valve creates minimal obstruction to the flow.
Gate valves control the process through the pipe with a gate. The gate might be wedge shaped or knife shaped, that slides up or down as the valve’s handwheel is turned. As the handwheel is rotated, the gate slides through the valve body to block or release the flow.
We in ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN are able to provide extensive variety of material and size with flexibility of selection for driving device (handle, bevel gear, electric, pneumatic, etc.) for all industries, from low to high temperature in different pressure of service.
A globe valve (GLV) is a type of valve used for regulating fluid flow, both on/off and throttling, it is a control valve. The name globe valve comes from the globular shape of the valve body. This valve is the most common control valve used and can be found in industries such as the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceutical, shiping, pulp and paper.
Advantages of globe valves are efficient throttling, with minimum wire drawing or disc and seat erosion. As the valve seat is parallel to the line of flow, globe valves are not recommended where resistance to flow and pressure drop are unwanted, because the design of the valve body changes the direction of flow and causes turbulence, and pressure drop within the valve. The shorter disc travel and the fewer turns to open and close this valve save time and wear on the valve stem and bonnet. In most globe and angle valves, seat and disc can be repaired without removing the valve from the line. The angle valve, like the globe valve is used for throttling service. The flow on the inlet side of the valve is at right angle to the flow on the outlet side, making a 90º change in direction. Angle valves eliminate the use of elbows and extra fittings.
Normally globe valves can find in three different forms such as: angle, cross and Straight Globe valve.
We in ITOK TEJARAT ARMAN are able to cover all your needs for globe valves according to your project technical specification.
A ball valve (BV) is a quarter turn valve used for changing the direction of a process stream (divert or shut off). Ball valves can be automated to automatically shutdown or open depending on the orientation of the actuator. True ball valves should not be used as control valves as velocities between the ball and seat can be high enough to wash out the sealing portion of the valve. The ball on the valve can be characterized to act as a control valve such as a V-ball type design.
Since the ball valve is a quarter turn valve, it is very easy to automate.In large applications, a ball valve may be economically prohibitive. This is due to the amount of metal that makes up the body and ball. For large diameter applications that require a quarter turn valve, a butterfly valve may be appropriate.
The bore of a ball valve is the area through which the fluid flows. A full bore valve has an opening that is equal to the nominal pipe size (NPS) of the flowing pipe. A standard bore ball valve typically has an area that is equal to the NPS of the pipe one size smaller than the flowing line.
Full bore ball valves are the ideal solution where pressure drop is a concern. Full bore valves are the ideal choice where pigging of process lines is a major consideration. Normal “dumb” pigs may be able to deform across a reduced bore ball valve. Smart pigs, however cannot. Full port valves are normally used when inserting sample probes, injection quills or interface probes to facilitate removing the device from the system while under full line pressure.
Trunnion Design is simply the use of upper and lower supports to retain the ball under pressure. Named for the “trunnion” historically used to support a cannon, a ball valve trunnion essentially doubles the safety and usability of a ball valve. Another important benefit of the trunnion design is that it allows the Ball Valve to act as a true union: The downstream piping can be disconnected under full upstream pressure (user is responsible to ensure that downstream piping is drained of liquid and that valve is indeed closed and secured to upstream piping).
The trunnion on a two-way ball valve supports the ball in much the same way as the stem does at the top. The trunnion on a three-way ball valve is a much different design, being more like a supporting ring, but provides the exact same function and inherent stability.
Floating ball valves are used in low pressure or small bore processes. A floating ball valve has two seats, located upstream and downstream of the ball. When the valve is closed, differential pressure across the valve assists in seating the ball. The adjacent ball valve is a ANSI 300 8″ soft seated floating ball valve with manual actuator (handwheel).
Metal Seated Ball Valves are described as extreme service valves. They are called metal seated ball valves because the ball and the seat are made out of metal. These are typically seen in high pressure & high temperature applications such as steam in a power generation plant. Metal Seated valves are high torque valves due to the high pressure differential across the valve and the metal ball and seat.
In order to completely seal, the seat must be machined to exactly match the ball. If there is any misalignment of the ball, the valve will leak. This is because the metal seat is less forgiving and less pliable than soft seated valves.
We in ITOK TEJERAT ARMAN are able to offer you variety of ball valves in different material, rating and operation method (handle, bevel gear, electric, pneumatic, etc.), to answer all your industrial needs.